Best Sources Of Information About Life Under Slavery

Four Hundreds of years, some of the best sources of information about life under slavery in the United States came from autobiographies published by former slaves. From Frederick Douglass to Solomon Northup, these narratives shed light on the horrors and atrocities suffered by millions of people with mundane regularity. But while their stories are important in documenting the history of slavery, they represent just a miniscule fraction of the people who were enslaved in the U.S. Now, a group of historians are working on compiling an archive of biographical information of many slaves gleaned from a strange source: fugitive slave ads.

Fugitive slave ads are an ironic source of details about the lives of slaves who might otherwise be lost to history. When slaves managed to escape their captors, slave owners would often publish ads in the classifieds sections of newspapers all throughout the country offering a reward for the runaway’s recapture and return. Even George Washington took out an advertisment to recapture one of his slaves. Ironically, these ads have become an important resource for historians trying to learn more about the lives of slaves who they would otherwise know nothing about.

“They wanted to provide as much detail about their appearance, their life story, how they carried themselves, what they were wearing,” Joshua Rothman, a historian at the University of Alabama, tells Smithsonian.com. “Each one of these things is sort of a little biography.”

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A wanted ad for a runway slave named Abner that doubles as a notice that slaveowner is looking to sell another slave, as well as several horses. (Courtesy of Freedom on the Move)

For decades, historians have looked to wanted ads posted by slave owners to glean details and insights into the lives of slaves that might not have been available elsewhere. While the level of detail varies from ad to ad, in many cases the slave owners would publish all sorts of descriptions and personal details about the escaped slaves, such as if they might have been headed for another plantation where they had family, or if they took their children with them when they ran. Now, Rothman and a small collective of colleagues are trying to compile as many of them as they can in one archive that they call Freedom on the Move.

“These ads are, in a sense, the Tweets of the ‘master class,’” Ed Baptist, a historian at Cornell University who is working on the archive tells Smithsonian.com. “They’re short, in certain ways they’re formulaic, but if you get enough of them together they can really tell you something about what’s going on.”

The volume of these ads coupled with the fact that they have so far been scattered in collections around the country makes them hard to survey on a large scale. By gathering as many ads as they can in one searchable archive, these historians hope that they will be able to uncover new trends and paint a fuller picture of the lives of slaves pursuing their freedom, says Mary Mitchell, a historian at the University of New Orleans who is collaborating with Baptist and Rothman on “Freedom on the Move.

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